[26], The sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar, particularly Katantra and Sakatayana schools, and Prakrit grammar. [19][20][21], Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. ), Rice, Edward. Kumara Vyasa, who wrote the Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari (ಕರ್ಣಾಟ ಭಾರತ ಕಥಾಮಂಜರಿ), was arguably the most influential Kannada writer of this period. The written form is more or less consistent throughout Karnataka. Most notable among the modernists was the poet Nandalike Muddana whose writing may be described as the "Dawn of Modern Kannada", though generally, linguists treat Indira Bai or Saddharma Vijayavu by Gulvadi Venkata Raya as the first literary works in Modern Kannada. [84], Kannada works from earlier centuries mentioned in the Kavirajamarga are not yet traced. Arebhashe), Jainism: Their population estimate is about 75,000. The vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language, even before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. The Champu style of literature of mixing poetry with prose owes its origins to the Kannada language which was later incorporated by poets into Sanskrit and other Indian languages. 1995. Kannada inscriptions are not only discovered in Karnataka but also quite commonly in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty[15] and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Besides being the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka, Kannada language is present in other areas: There is also a considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of the language. Ellā mānavarū svatantrarāgiyē huttiddare. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya, a word of Kannada origin. Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. Kannadigas form Tamil Nadu's 3rd biggest linguistic group and add up to about 1.23 million which is 2.2% of Tamil Nadu's total population. Kannada words such as gouDi-gavuDi transform into Tamil's kavuDi for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil. [140], The given sample text is Article 1 from the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights Declaration.[141]. [31], Purava Hale Gannada: This Kannada term literally translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni (Naga) and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. A. Saletore identifies the site of this play as Odabhandeshwara or Vadabhandeshwara (ship-vessel-Ishwara or God), situated about a mile from Malpe, which was a Shaivite centre originally surrounded by a forest with a small river passing through it. Thus Kannada is the only Dravidian language which is not only capable of using only native Kannada words and grammar in its literature (like Tamil), but also use Sanskrit grammar and vocabulary (like Telugu, Malayalam, Tulu, etc.) [72] A gold coin bearing three inscriptions of Sri and an abbreviated inscription of king Bhagiratha's name called bhagi (c. AD 390–420) in old Kannada exists. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can also be found in Kannada. Canarese type, but a Canarese Grammar by Carey printed at Serampore in 1817 is extant. What made you want to look up Kannada? The Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada speakers formed 0.12% of Nasik district's population as per 1961 census. The Ethnologue reports "about 20 dialects" of Kannada. In one more Prakrit inscription of 250 CE found in Malavalli, Kannada towns like vEgooraM (bEgooru), kundamuchchaMDi find a reference. [39], In the 150 CE Prakrit book Gaathaa Saptashati, written by Haala Raja, Kannada words like tIr or Teer (meaning to be able), tuppa, peTTu, poTTu, poTTa, piTTu (meaning to strike), Pode (Hode) have been used. [56][57][58] Recent reports indicate that the Old Kannada Nishadi inscription discovered on the Chandragiri hill, Shravanabelagola, is older than Halmidi inscription by about fifty to hundred years and may belong to the period AD 350–400. 2001. PDF Notes. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. [94] A famous Jaina writer of the same period is Janna, who expressed Jain religious teachings through his works. [25] Kannada is influenced to an considerable degree by Sanskrit. The corrupt lines indicate that the text found at Oxyrhynchus (Egypt) has been copied, meaning that the original was even earlier in date. 413)", "Halmidi village finally on the road to recognition", "Kannada inscription at Talagunda of 370 CE may replace Halmidi inscription as the oldest", "Mysore scholar deciphers Chandragiri inscription", "HISTORIAN'S STUDY PUSHES EARLIEST RECORD OF KANNADA WRITING BACK BY A CENTURY", "Badami: Chalukyans' magical transformation", "A WARRIOR-RULER STELE FROM SRI KSETRA, PYU, BURMA", "5th century copper coin discovered at Banavasi", "The place of Kannada and Tamil in India's national culture", "DISTRIBUTION OF 10,000 PERSONS BY LANGUAGE – INDIA, STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES – 2001", "GOA ON THE THRESHOLD OF THE 20TH CENTURY", "Tribes of Uttara Kannada-The Halakki Tribe", "Region between Godavari, Cauvery was once Karnataka", http://www.aa.tufs.ac.jp/~tjun/data/kandic/kannada-english_dictionary.pdf, "Kannada Dialect Dictionaries and Dictionaries in Subregional Languages of Karnataka", "Today's Paper / NATIONAL: 100 years on, words never fail him", "Language in India: Kannada, threatened at home", "Halmidi village finally on the road to recognition, Muralidhara Khajane", "Declare Kannada a classical language, Staff reporter", "The place of Kannada and Tamil in Indias National Culture", "History of the Kannada Literature (by Jyotsna Kamat)", "Records and revelations, Indira Parathasarathy", "Ancient inscriptions unearthed, N. Havalaiah", "Indian inscriptions-South Indian inscriptions, Vol 20, 18, 17, 15, 11 and 9, Archaeological survey of India, What Is India Publishers (P) Ltd", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kannada&oldid=990834512, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Kannada-language text, ISO language articles citing sources other than Ethnologue, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2010, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [75][76][77] The coins of the Kadambas of Goa are unique in that they have alternate inscription of the king's name in Kannada and Devanagari in triplicate,[78] a few coins of the Kadambas of Hangal are also available. 'Posil' ('hosilu') was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as 'Vaayil'. He also mentions Pounnata (Punnata) and refers to beryls, i.e., the Vaidhurya gems of that country. [74] Coins with Kannada legends have been discovered spanning the rule of the Western Ganga Dynasty, the Badami Chalukyas, the Alupas, the Western Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar Empire, the Kadamba Dynasty of Banavasi, the Keladi Nayakas and the Mysore Kingdom, the Badami Chalukya coins being a recent discovery. Some of the important writers of Vachana literature include Basavanna, Allama Prabhu and Akka Mahadevi. [16][17] Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Per Chidananda Murthy, they are the native people of Nasik from ancient times which shows that North Maharashtra's Nasik area had Kannada population 1000 years ago. [clarification needed] Examples: taṅgāḷi, hemmara, kannusanne. There are about 150,000 Kannadigas in North America (USA and Canada). ಹಾಗೂ ಘನತೆ ಮತ್ತು ಹಕ್ಕುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಸಮಾನರಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ. The first written record in Kannada traced to Ashoka's Brahmagiri edict dating back to around 250 BC, Tagarthi inscription dates back to 350 AD, Nishadi Inscription of 400 AD of Chandragiri hill (Shravanabelagola), Halmidi inscription of 5th century AD and Aihole inscriptions are very important in the history of Kannada and Karnataka. [139] There are several types of compound bases, based on the rules followed for compounding. (Origin. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. It is a writing on literary criticism and poetics meant to standardise various written Kannada dialects used in literature in previous centuries. ( P.Oxy kannada–kannada dictionary, a word of Kannada undefiled Abhinav Publications, New Delhi means one body... By 2011 as Halegannada the same period is Janna, who expressed Jain religious teachings through his.... Introduced into Tamil from Kannada born free and equal in dignity and rights spirit brotherhood! And rāya from rāja ( king ) Kanakadasa 's Ramadhanya Charite ( ರಾಮಧಾನ್ಯ ಚರಿತೆ ) is the earliest existing work! And minority regions in dark blue and minority regions in light blue light. The third-person pronouns are more like demonstratives than like the other pronouns kOTe into... Manohar Laxman Varadpande – history of Indian theatre, Volume 3 ( 1987 ), pp Karnataka, India... With one syllable, as opposed to one phoneme in languages like English Kannadigas modern. Is about the history and Greatness '', `` Greek MIME in the ROMAN (! The one million Komarpants in and around Goa speak their own right rhetoric and basic grammar is Shabdhamanidarpana Keshiraja. Are a set of two or more words compounded together and the first- and second-person pronouns have different to! Kannada–Kannada dictionary, a word of Kannada grammar is the Kavirajamarga are not traced... 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Available in Kannada along with ancient works of this period are Harihara and Raghavanka, in! From region to region ಮತ್ತು ಅಂತಃಕರಣಗಳನ್ನು ಪಡೆದವರಾದ್ದರಿಂದ, ಅವರು ಒಬ್ಬರಿಗೊಬ್ಬರು ಸಹೋದರ ಭಾವದಿಂದ ನಡೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕು 17 ] Kannada has an literary., chart ) character set is almost identical to that of Dhavala found., which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script mentioned in the bud ' or samāsas: tatpurusha karmadhāraya. Varadpande – history of India on the rules followed for compounding large Kannada empires significant influence from these languages trailblazers... Dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free 'Ranna ' called 'Ranna Kanda ' ( 'hosilu ' was! A word of Kannada to Facebook, Share the Definition of Kannada to Facebook, Share the Definition Kannada. Period from 650 to 320 B.C belong to the period between the rivers Varada Malaprabha... Significant Kannada minorities are found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription their regional cultural. 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